domingo, 16 de agosto de 2015

A pottery bowl

A pottery bowl with a ship in incised underglaze. Culture: Byzantine. Date/Period: 11th or 12th century. Material Size: Pottery. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive/ Byzantine Museum, Athens . Location: 05

Couvercle et cercueil d'un roi Antef (Sékhemrê Hérouhermaât). 17e dynastie.

Couvercle et cercueil d'un roi Antef (Sékhemrê Hérouhermaât). 17e dynastie.

Female figure with raised arms

Female figure with raised arms
Female figurines of this type, made from Nile silt, are among the oldest sculptures in Egyptian art. Their form is extremely schematised, and their heads tend to resemble that of a bird. The arms are raised beside the head with the palms of the hands turned to face inward, and the upper part of the body leans forward slightly. At the bottom of the legs is the hint of a foot. Their function in a tomb is not immediately apparent; are they bird-he...aded deities, fertility goddesses, concubines for the deceased, mourners, or even dancers?
Present location KMKG - MRAH [07/003] BRUSSELS
Inventory number E.3006
Archaeological Site UNKNOWN
Height 23.7 cm
Width 15.1 cm
Bibliography•F. Lefebvre et B. Van Rinsveld, L'Égypte. Des Pharaons aux Coptes, Bruxelles 1990, 20
•S. Hendrickx, Prehistorische en vroegdynastische oudheden uit Egypte - Antiquités préhistoriques et protodynastiques d'Égypte, Bruxelles 1994, 26-27

sábado, 15 de agosto de 2015

The sacred geese of Amun

The sacred geese of Amun

This small votive statue depicts sacred geese of Amun sitting on a limestone pedestal. There are a total of nine birds of different sizes: two large, three medium, and four small geese. They are very close to each other and together occupy the entire upper surface of the pedestal. On the front of the pedestal is an inscription identifying the object as a votive gift.

Present location PELIZAEUS-MUSEUM [04/030] HILDESHEIM
Inventory number 4544
Archaeological Site DEIR EL-MEDINAH ?
Height 7.5 cm
Width 17.2 cm
Depth 11.5 cm

"[1] Made by the relief sculptor of Amun in the "Place of Truth", Keni the justified. He says: Permanence and duration for the geese of Amun."

Bibliography•Kayser, H., Die Gänse des Amon : Eine Neuerwerbung des Pelizaeus-Museums, in: Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 16, Wiesbaden 1958, S. 193, Tf. 14.
•Porter, B. & Moss, R.L.B., Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings, vol. I².2 : Theban necropolis, Oxford 1964, S. 714.
•Kayser, H., Die ägyptischen Altertümer im Roemer-Pelizaeus-Museum in Hildesheim, Hildesheim 1973, S. 94.
•Kitchen, K.A., Ramesside Inscriptions : Historical and Biographical; vol. III, Oxford 1980, S. 682 (Nr. 6).
•Egypt's Golden Age : The Art of Living in the New Kingdom 1558-1085 B.C., Boston 1982, Kat.-Nr. 412.
•Eggebrecht, A. (Hrsg.), Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim : Die ägyptische Sammlung, Hildesheim - Mainz 1993, Abb. 69.
•Monreal Agustí, L. (Hrsg.), Egipto milenario : Vida cotidiana en la época de los faraones, Barcelona 1998, Kat.-Nr. 61.
•Kitchen, K.A., Ramesside Inscriptions. Translated and Annotated : Translations; vol. III, Oxford 2000, S. 460.
•Andreu, G. (Hrsg.), Les artistes de Pharaon : Deir el-Médineh et la Vallée des Rois, Paris - Turnhout 2002, Kat.-Nr. 165


Necklace beads

Necklace beads

Period: Early Dynastic IIIa

Date: ca. 2600–2500 B.C.

Geography: Mesopotamia, Ur (modern Tell al-Muqayyar)

Culture: Sumerian

Medium: Gold, lapis lazuli

Dimensions: L. 54 cm

Classification: Metalwork-Ornaments

Credit Line: Dodge Fund, 1933

Accession Number: 33.35.48

Met museum

Foundation figure of Ur-Namma holding a basket

Foundation figure of Ur-Namma holding a basket

Period: Ur III

Date: ca. 2112–2095 B.C.

Geography: Mesopotamia

Culture: Neo-Sumerian

Medium: Copper alloy

Dimensions: H. 27.3 cm (10 3/4 in.)

Classification: Metalwork-Sculpture-Inscribed

Credit Line: Gift of Mrs. William H. Moore, 1947

Accession Number: 47.49

Furniture support: female sphinx with Hathor-style curls

Furniture support: female sphinx with Hathor-style curls

Period: Middle Bronze Age–Old Assyrian Trading Colony
Date: ca. 18th century B.C.
Geography: Anatolia, probably from Acemhöyük
Culture: Old Assyrian Trading Colony
Medium: Ivory (Hippopotamus), gold foil
Dimensions: H. 5 x W. 4 1/8 in. (12.7 x 10.4 cm)
Classification: Ivory/Bone-Sculpture
Credit Line: Gift of George D. Pratt, 1932
Accession Number: 32.161.46
Met Museum

jueves, 13 de agosto de 2015

Opening of the Mouth ritual: Sety I

Opening of the Mouth ritual: Sety I seated at offering table and Iwnmutef priests, with loss of part of figure of king.

KV 17

New Kingdom, Dynasty 19, Sety I

miércoles, 12 de agosto de 2015

Ornamento per mummia-Iside

Ornamento per mummia-Iside




Acquisito tramite gli scavi dell'Istituto Papirologico Fiorentino a El-Hiba negli anni 1934-1935.

G. Botti, Le casse di mummia e i sarcofagi di El Hibeh nel Museo Egizio di Firenze, Firenze 1958, pgg. 189-190, n. 222, Tav. C fig. 1


martes, 11 de agosto de 2015

met museum

Model bust of Amenhotep IV (Paris, Louvre E 11076 and Berlin, ÄMP 21360).

Model bust of Amenhotep IV (Paris, Louvre E 11076 and Berlin, ÄMP 21360).

Akhenaten and Nefertiti"

The statue ( (Ht. 90 cm) belongs to a pair of headless statues of "Akhenaten and Nefertiti" ( Silsilah sandstone), found on 4th February 1924 in rubbish 50 cm above floor in the north-east corner of small chamber at west end of L 50,12 very near to the shrine-platform of L 50,9, from which they had probably thrown out.
The statue of Nefertiti, now in the British Museum, has lost head, feet above ankles and base, most of the tablet with the right lower arm and the left hand.
Each was represented standing with feet together, on a plain rectangular plinth, with inscribed pilaster at the back...........
Source :
Excavations at Tell el-'Amarnah, 1923-4.
A. Statuary
F. Ll. Griffith
The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 17, No. 3/4 (Nov., 1931), pp. 179-184
Published by: Egypt Exploration Society

domingo, 9 de agosto de 2015

Coffin of a woman

Coffin of a woman
The coffin has a vaulted lid. The lower piece is decorated with grapevines on all sides except the head, where a winged scarab is depicted.
The deceased is shown on the lid as a mummiform Hathor, in a dotted garment with one vertical textcolumn on the front. She is represented completely in frontal view. In her opposed hands are a sekhem-sceptre and a hes-vase. She wears a collar and a dotted wig on which rest the double feather-crown and the cow's horns with sun disk.
Two wailing women, probably Isis and Nephthys, kneel on either side of her head. They wear long, close-fitting garments that do not cover the breasts, collars, bracelets and semi-short curly wigs. They hold hes-vases.
The upper body of the deceased is flanked by the Four Sons of Horus: at the right elbow are Amset and Duamutef, at the left elbow are Hapi and Qebehsenuef. Underneath, Thoth (at the right) and Sobek (at the left) are painted, and again the four sons of Horus: to the left Qebehsenuef and Amset, to the right Hapi and Qebehsenuef (sic). All these figures are represented as standing mummies with collars, holding either a cup in one hand or a cloth with both hands.
All previously mentioned figures are depicted on a background of a painted bead net, bordered at the top by a band with stars and at the bottom by a band with rozettes.
On the sides of the lid, a broad band is painted in which two rozettes or flowers alternate with mummiform deities, with varying heads and crowns. The last figure on the bands is (on either side) a mummy on a bier with wheels.
At the top of the coffin is Isis, kneeling with outspread wings on the hieroglyph meaning "gold" (Gardiner S12). She is flanked by Osiris (right) and Re-Harakhty (left) at the top, and by two tit-signs and two reclining jackals at the bottom.
At the foot of the coffin, a falcon with outspread wings is depicted. The round top is bordered by a coloured band.
The inside of the coffin is undecorated.

Inventory number APM 7070

Archaeological Site UNKNOWN
Height 33 cm
Width 29 cm
Depth 159 cm

... of ... breath (in the necropolis?) ... o Hathor-Isis, borne by Hathor and Amenemope (who gave her a name?); sweet breath in all ... of ... Heliopolis, he of Edfu, who ... (... Seth?) (...? ...?) may she live, may the ruler live(?).

Bibliography•G.A.S. Snijder (ed.), Algemeene gids Allard Pierson Museum Amsterdam, 1956 (tweede druk), 18
•diversen (M.H. Groothand), Griekse, Etruskische en Romeinse kunst (catalogus APM), 1984 (tweede druk), 181-183/fig. 144-145
•R.A. Lunsingh Scheurleer (ed.), Egypte, eender en anders (tentoonstellingscatalogus APM), 1984, 39
•W.M. van Haarlem, CAA Allard Pierson Museum Amsterdam, Fasc. IV, 1997, 95-98


sábado, 8 de agosto de 2015






This figurine belongs to a type of shabti dating from the end of the 2nd Intermediate Period or the beginning of the New Kingdom. It constitutes a simple block of wood whose two extremities - the head and the feet - are cursorily depicted. On the rounded body, one notices a text written on eight lines in hieratic script. It is a version of Chapter 6 of the Book of the Dead.


viernes, 7 de agosto de 2015

Model Funerary Bark of Ukhhotep

Model Funerary Bark of Ukhhotep

Period: Middle Kingdom

Dynasty: Dynasty 12

Date: ca. 1981–1802 B.C.

Geography: Probably from Egypt, Middle Egypt, Meir (Mir)

Medium: Wood, paint, stucco

Dimensions: l. 124 cm (48 13/16 in); w. 56 cm (22 1/16in); h. 71.5 cm (28 1/8 in)

Credit Line: Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1912

Accession Number: 12.183.4

Met Museum


Thoth, the god of wisdom and patron deity of scribes, was often shown with a human body and an ibis head. Here he wears a shendit, a long wig, and the moon-disk and crescent as a crown on his head. His left foot is missing. Silver figures such as this were precious and used by the elite

god Thot

Ancient Egyptian statuette of the god Thot sculpted here as ibis-headed. Musée des beaux-arts in Rennes (France). D.08.8.2. Date : between the late period and the ptolemaic period. Three-quarter view.


The Griffith Institute
Tutankhamun: Anatomy of an Excavation
The Howard Carter Archives
Photographs by Harry Burton

jueves, 6 de agosto de 2015

Sarcophagus with a Greek physician

Sarcophagus with a Greek physician, early 300s
Roman; Ostia, Italy
Inscribed in Greek: If anyone shall dare to bury another person along with this one, he shall pay to the treasury three times two thousand [whatever the unit was]. This is what he shall pay to [the city of] Portus, but he himself will endure the eternal punishment of the violator of graves.
Gift of Mrs. Joseph Brummer and Ernest Brummer, in memory of Joseph Brummer, 1948 (48.76.1)

The tomb's owner is shown seated with an open scroll, the pose of a philosopher, demonstrating that he is a learned man. His profession can be identified by the open case containing surgical tools on the cabinet top. Other scrolls and a basin for bleeding patients within the cabinet offer further proof of his profession. The style of his dress and the language of the inscription indicate that he was one of the many Greeks living in Italy. Beginning in the 300s, Christians would adopt in their art the philosopher pose and the undulating motifs, or strigils, that appear on the sides of the sarcophagus.

Met Museum

Ear probe

Ear probe, Roman
Bronze; L. 6 1/2 in. (16.51 cm)
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.5491)

This bronze ear probe, one of the instruments most frequently mentioned in ancient literary references, consists of a simple probe and a small narrow scoop. The Roman physician Galen (129–199/216) tells us that when foreign matter could not be removed from the ear by more simple methods, it was necessary to make an incision behind the ear and remove the matter by means of such a scoop. This instrument also would have been used for applying medicaments, especially to the eye—liquid applications were poured from it and semi-solid ointments were applied with the back of it. The back of the scoop also was used for retracting flesh and in other minor surgical procedures.
The sharp end of the ear probe was used to instill liquids into the ear. A large ball of wool saturated with the liquid medicament was wrapped around the middle of the probe. By squeezing the wool, the liquid was directed down the shaft of the instrument and into the ear.

Met Museum

Wooden door of the tomb of Khonsuhotep

Wooden door of the tomb of Khonsuhotep

From Thebes, Egypt
19th Dynasty, around 1285 BC

A high priest of Amun

Egyptian doors very rarely survive down to modern times, partly because wood was rare, and often re-used. The most common tree in Egypt is the palm, which does not consist of wood as such; their trunks consists of coarse fibres, which are unsuitable for carpentry. Doors in Egypt were usually made of a single leaf, although larger doors were probably made of two leaves and secured shut with bolts. Protrusions at the top and bottom of the door fitted into holes in the doorway on which the door pivoted. Very similar doors are still used in modern Egyptian villages.

Tomb doors are particularly rare, and few architectural traces (such as the holes in the floor) have survived. This example is made of sycomore fig (Ficus sycomorus) wood. It was decorated with a figure of the owner, a high priest of Amun, adoring Osiris. Depicting him on the door was a clear way of establishing his ownership of the tomb. The white infill is modern.

S. Quirke, Ancient Egyptian religion (London, The British Museum Press, 1992)

British Museum

ligula romana

Ligula Roman
Bronze; L. 4 3/4 in. (12.1 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1917 (17.230.110)
This type of bronze ligula is found in enormous numbers in a great variety. It was used for extracting ointment, balsams, and powders from tubes and boxes. The ligula is not, strictly speaking, a surgical instrument, although it was used by physicians for applying medicament to affected areas on the body

Met Museum

Childbirth scene

Childbirth scene, ca. 310–30 b.c.; Hellenistic
Cypriot; Said to be from the temple at Golgoi
Limestone; H. 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm), L. 9 7/8 in. (25.1 cm)
The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76 (74.51.2698)

This small limestone sculpture depicts a woman in childbirth. A standing attendant, whose head is missing, supports the mother from behind. At the foot of the couch, a seated attendant holds the newborn child. In classical antiquity, childbirth was generally the concern of midwives, as male doctors were called in only for difficult cases. Several of Hippocrates' treatises discuss childbirth, beginning with the onset of labor as it relates to the movement of the fetus. The most detailed account of labor and delivery is in the first-century A.D. handbook entitled Gynaecology, which was written by the Ephesian physician Soranus (98–138) for midwives. Soranus envisioned delivery on a birthing chair; he describes the dilation of the cervix and the breathing technique to be used in the delivery. He also emphasizes that the midwife and assistants, as depicted in this limestone sculpture from Golgoi, must reassure the mother.

Met Museum


Mummiform wooden shabti with hands, finely carved in relief, crossed over the chest. There are traces of yellow in the background, red on the hoes and the vertical framing lines, and black on the inscription, wig, collar and basket. The piece is split down the front and a part of the base is missing.

Present location


Inventory number

E 76 (n. cat. 91)



Archaeological Site









22 cm


6.3 cm


The sehedj, the Osiris ...


  • Antiguidades Egípcias I, Lisboa, 1993


Coffin bottom board

Coffin bottom board

The bottom board of a coffin with on its inner face a representation of a standing goddess. She is wearing a band of cobras on her head on top of which the Hathor crown is placed - a double falcon's feather, cow's horns and a solar disk. Over her tripartite wig lies the golden vulture's cap, and a broad collar composed of four rows covers her neck and shoulders. The tight dress, which is suspended by two shoulder straps, has a decoration of vulture wings wrapped around the body. The goddess holds a heka-scepter in her right hand together with an ankh-sign. A number of small-scale beings are painted around her, among which is a Ba-bird with a human head in frontal view and a figure of Anubis with a jackal's head. In addition, there are emblematic hieroglyphs rendered with much detail and in full colour. The goddess is the Mistress of the West, the necropolis, she is Isis who mourns the deceased Osiris. At the same time, she is Hathor as a goddess of heaven, giving life to the deceased.

Inventory number 232
Dating 20TH DYNASTY (not before); 21ST DYNASTY ?; 21ST DYNASTY (not after)
Archaeological Site UNKNOWN
Technique PAINTED
Height 120 cm
Width 41 cm
Depth 2.5 cm

Bibliography•Demel, H., Aegyptische Kunst (1947) 21, Abb. 4 (Druckfehler!).
•Niwinski, A., 21st Dynasty Coffins from Thebes. Chronological and Typological Studies (1988) 176, Nr. 409.
•Seipel, W. (ed.), Götter Menschen Pharaonen, Speyer (1993) = Dioses, Hombres, Faraones, Ciudad de México (1993) = Das Vermächtnis der Pharaonen, Zürich (1994), Kat.Nr. 146.
•Satzinger, H., Das Kunsthistorische Museum in Wien. Die Ägyptisch-Orientalische Sammlung. Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie 14. Mainz. 1994.


Heart amulets

Heart amulets, Dynasty 18–19 (ca. 1550–1186 B.C.)
Gift of Helen Miller Gould, 1910 (10.130.1782)

Heart amulets, Dynasty 19–20 (ca. 1295–1070 B.C.)
Gift of Helen Miller Gould, 1910 (10.130.1804)

For the ancient Egyptians, the heart (ib) was the source of intelligence, feelings, and actions. A person's memory was also housed in the heart and so at the judgment ceremony (Weighing of the Heart) in the afterlife, the heart was able to speak on behalf of the deceased, accounting to Osiris for a lifetime of deeds. Therefore, heart amulets were only used on the mummy to protect the owner's organ and to ensure that his heart gave a positive response at judgment.

False door of Neferseshemkhufu

False door of Neferseshemkhufu

Perhaps from Giza, Egypt
6th Dynasty, around 2200 BC
Limestone false door of a scribe and supervisor of priests
This false door is thought to come from Giza, mainly because the name of the owner is compounded with that of Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid. Most officials who bear such names seem to have been buried at Giza.
This is a typical example of a false door as would have belonged to a minor official: it is simply laid out, and the slightly jumbled nature of some of the hieroglyphs perhaps give it a much older appearance. The separate images of Neferseshemkhufu and his wife Khentyka on the central panel are unusual.
T.G.H. James (ed.), Hieroglyphic texts from Egyp-9, Part 1, 2nd edition (London, The British Museum Press, 1961)

British Museum

miércoles, 5 de agosto de 2015