sábado, 28 de noviembre de 2015

Las plañideras de la TT45, tumba de Djehuty

Las plañideras de la TT45, tumba de Djehuty.
Época del reinado de Ramses II
Sheikh Abd el-Gurnah

tomb TT45

It contains scenes of the funeral, which continue on to the south wall. Due to lack of space, some sketches have been added on top of the principal scenes.
•  The chest containing the canopic jars, which contained and protected the viscera of the deceased can be seen carried by four men. It is made out of gold plated wood, decorated with djed pillars and black “knots of Isis”, also known as tyet. The chest is placed on a barque and watched over by the two goddesses: Isis and Nephtys. A representation of the god Wepwawet, “the opener of the ways”, in the form of a black canine, can be found in the bow (front part) of the barque. A young man and two female mourners accompany the wooden chest. We can notice the black line underneath the eyes of the female mourners, which designates the tears.
•  In front of the barque are three men, colleagues or parents of the deceased, making signs of mourning and distress; they are clothed wearing a tunic on top of a large pleated bouffant kilt and a wig. They are following the conveyor of the deceased composed of a barque that supports the catafalque that contains the mummy. The representation is in deteriorated condition, and the entire wall featured on the right side is practically indecipherable .
•  On the top, on the left-hand side, one can notice some small personages brining pieces of furniture, whilst on the right side there is a group of female mourners . The women are featured with bare breasts, and with their hair in a disordered manner .
•  Further on the right we find a scene that still poses some interpretation problems. The ritual of the opening of the mouth normally involves the mummy being presented with the leg of a bovine, and it is most probably certain that the sad honours will be bestowed on to one of the animals pulling the conveyance. However, there exist in several tombs of the New Kingdom, as well as on some papyri, depictions illustrating calves being mutilated alive, to whom the limb is cut off under the knee, in a way this can be seen as the “hand” of the young animal. The reality of mutilation at the New Kingdom remains doubtful (but what to think about the representation in the tomb of Ptahmes qui date de la XIXe dynastie - reproduced by Weigall)? – besides the cruelty (but this is our modern point of view, maybe anachronistic), it seems to me to be absurd in economic terms. What to do with an animal that only has three legs? In addition, no text talks about this scene. Maybe it is a reference to a relatively more ancient and quite genuine ceremony? Nadine Guilhou believes that it involves a metaphor representing the ablation of the hands of Horus by his mother in the tale of Horus and Seth. The calf is almost always, as is the case with this representation, accompanied by a cow that, head lifted, wails her despair at witnessing her little one being mistreated. 

The tomb TT45 was carved during the period of Amenhotep II (c. 1427 – 1400 B.C) for Djehuty, an official of modest rank. A few centuries later, towards the end of the reign of Ramses II (c. 1279 – 1213 B.C), a new occupier, Djehutyemheb, takes possession of the surroundings (Kampp places the reutilisation of the tomb slightly later, during the 20th dynasty). 

martes, 17 de noviembre de 2015

A fragment of a relief.

A fragment of a relief. A span of horses waiting with their chariots. Such reliefs come from the temples and palaces at Akhenaten (Amarna), the capital of Egypt under Akhenaton, but after the destruction of the site were re-used as foundation blocks. Country of Origin: Egypt. Culture: Ancient Egyptian. Date/Period: 18th dynasty c.1352-1336 BC, Amarna period. Material/ Size: Limestone, H=23 cm W= 54cm. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive/ Schimmel Collection, New York .

Detail from one of the panels of the shrine built to protect the sarcophagus of Queen Tiye

Detail from one of the panels of the shrine built to protect the sarcophagus of Queen Tiye, mother of Akhenaten. The Queen is offering libation to the sun god Aten. Country of Origin: Egypt. Culture: Ancient Egyptian. Date/Period: Amarna period 1398 - 1338BC. Place of Origin: Tomb KV 55. Material Size: gilded wood. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.


Schneider, H. D., Life and Death under the Pharaohs, Perth 1997, nr. 34.


É. AMELINEAU, Les nouvelles fouilles d'Abydos I (1895-1896), Paris, 1899, p. 121 et 288; Vente. Antiquités égyptiennes trouvées à Abydos, Paris, Drouot, 8 - 9 février 1904, n° 186; Collection Raoul Warocqué. Antiquités égyptiennes, grecques et romaines, Mariemont, 2e éd., 1916, n° 103, p. 62; B. VAN DE WALLE, Antiquités égyptiennes, Bruxelles, 1952 (Les antiquités égyptiennes, grecques, étrusques, romaines et gallo-romaines du Musée de Mariemont), n° E. 1, p. 17, pl. 1; Chefs-d’œuvre du Musée de Mariemont (catalogue d’exposition. Bruxelles, Palais des Beaux-Arts, 5 décembre 1959 - 3 janvier 1960), 1959, n° 148; G. DONNAY, Le musée royal de Mariemont, Bruxelles, 1987 (Musea Nostra, 5), p. 56; Musée de Mariemont, 2e éd., Morlanwelz, 1963 (Musées de Belgique), n° 1; M.-C. BRUWIER, «La collection égyptienne de Raoul Warocqué, I. De 1888 à 1911», in Cahiers de Mariemont, 18-19, 1987-1988, p. 60, fig. 4; Cl. DERRIKS, Choix d'œuvres, I, Égypte, Morlanwelz, 1990, n° 4; Cl. DERRIKS et L. DELVAUX, Antiquités égyptiennes au Musée royal de Mariemont, Morlanwelz, 2009, p. 305-306.

boundary stela A

The boundary stele of Akhenaten, marked Stele A by Finders Petrie, it was erected to mark the inclusion of the area to Akhenaten's new capital Amarna. Detail. Culture: Ancient Egyptian Date/Period: In use from the 19th Dynasty until Ptolemaic times, c.1295 - 100 BC. Place of Origin: Tuna el-Gebel. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive. Location: 34B.