sábado, 28 de noviembre de 2015

Las plañideras de la TT45, tumba de Djehuty

Las plañideras de la TT45, tumba de Djehuty.
Época del reinado de Ramses II
Sheikh Abd el-Gurnah

tomb TT45

It contains scenes of the funeral, which continue on to the south wall. Due to lack of space, some sketches have been added on top of the principal scenes.
•  The chest containing the canopic jars, which contained and protected the viscera of the deceased can be seen carried by four men. It is made out of gold plated wood, decorated with djed pillars and black “knots of Isis”, also known as tyet. The chest is placed on a barque and watched over by the two goddesses: Isis and Nephtys. A representation of the god Wepwawet, “the opener of the ways”, in the form of a black canine, can be found in the bow (front part) of the barque. A young man and two female mourners accompany the wooden chest. We can notice the black line underneath the eyes of the female mourners, which designates the tears.
•  In front of the barque are three men, colleagues or parents of the deceased, making signs of mourning and distress; they are clothed wearing a tunic on top of a large pleated bouffant kilt and a wig. They are following the conveyor of the deceased composed of a barque that supports the catafalque that contains the mummy. The representation is in deteriorated condition, and the entire wall featured on the right side is practically indecipherable .
•  On the top, on the left-hand side, one can notice some small personages brining pieces of furniture, whilst on the right side there is a group of female mourners . The women are featured with bare breasts, and with their hair in a disordered manner .
•  Further on the right we find a scene that still poses some interpretation problems. The ritual of the opening of the mouth normally involves the mummy being presented with the leg of a bovine, and it is most probably certain that the sad honours will be bestowed on to one of the animals pulling the conveyance. However, there exist in several tombs of the New Kingdom, as well as on some papyri, depictions illustrating calves being mutilated alive, to whom the limb is cut off under the knee, in a way this can be seen as the “hand” of the young animal. The reality of mutilation at the New Kingdom remains doubtful (but what to think about the representation in the tomb of Ptahmes qui date de la XIXe dynastie - reproduced by Weigall)? – besides the cruelty (but this is our modern point of view, maybe anachronistic), it seems to me to be absurd in economic terms. What to do with an animal that only has three legs? In addition, no text talks about this scene. Maybe it is a reference to a relatively more ancient and quite genuine ceremony? Nadine Guilhou believes that it involves a metaphor representing the ablation of the hands of Horus by his mother in the tale of Horus and Seth. The calf is almost always, as is the case with this representation, accompanied by a cow that, head lifted, wails her despair at witnessing her little one being mistreated. 

The tomb TT45 was carved during the period of Amenhotep II (c. 1427 – 1400 B.C) for Djehuty, an official of modest rank. A few centuries later, towards the end of the reign of Ramses II (c. 1279 – 1213 B.C), a new occupier, Djehutyemheb, takes possession of the surroundings (Kampp places the reutilisation of the tomb slightly later, during the 20th dynasty). 

martes, 17 de noviembre de 2015

A fragment of a relief.

A fragment of a relief. A span of horses waiting with their chariots. Such reliefs come from the temples and palaces at Akhenaten (Amarna), the capital of Egypt under Akhenaton, but after the destruction of the site were re-used as foundation blocks. Country of Origin: Egypt. Culture: Ancient Egyptian. Date/Period: 18th dynasty c.1352-1336 BC, Amarna period. Material/ Size: Limestone, H=23 cm W= 54cm. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive/ Schimmel Collection, New York .

Detail from one of the panels of the shrine built to protect the sarcophagus of Queen Tiye

Detail from one of the panels of the shrine built to protect the sarcophagus of Queen Tiye, mother of Akhenaten. The Queen is offering libation to the sun god Aten. Country of Origin: Egypt. Culture: Ancient Egyptian. Date/Period: Amarna period 1398 - 1338BC. Place of Origin: Tomb KV 55. Material Size: gilded wood. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.


Schneider, H. D., Life and Death under the Pharaohs, Perth 1997, nr. 34.


É. AMELINEAU, Les nouvelles fouilles d'Abydos I (1895-1896), Paris, 1899, p. 121 et 288; Vente. Antiquités égyptiennes trouvées à Abydos, Paris, Drouot, 8 - 9 février 1904, n° 186; Collection Raoul Warocqué. Antiquités égyptiennes, grecques et romaines, Mariemont, 2e éd., 1916, n° 103, p. 62; B. VAN DE WALLE, Antiquités égyptiennes, Bruxelles, 1952 (Les antiquités égyptiennes, grecques, étrusques, romaines et gallo-romaines du Musée de Mariemont), n° E. 1, p. 17, pl. 1; Chefs-d’œuvre du Musée de Mariemont (catalogue d’exposition. Bruxelles, Palais des Beaux-Arts, 5 décembre 1959 - 3 janvier 1960), 1959, n° 148; G. DONNAY, Le musée royal de Mariemont, Bruxelles, 1987 (Musea Nostra, 5), p. 56; Musée de Mariemont, 2e éd., Morlanwelz, 1963 (Musées de Belgique), n° 1; M.-C. BRUWIER, «La collection égyptienne de Raoul Warocqué, I. De 1888 à 1911», in Cahiers de Mariemont, 18-19, 1987-1988, p. 60, fig. 4; Cl. DERRIKS, Choix d'œuvres, I, Égypte, Morlanwelz, 1990, n° 4; Cl. DERRIKS et L. DELVAUX, Antiquités égyptiennes au Musée royal de Mariemont, Morlanwelz, 2009, p. 305-306.

boundary stela A

The boundary stele of Akhenaten, marked Stele A by Finders Petrie, it was erected to mark the inclusion of the area to Akhenaten's new capital Amarna. Detail. Culture: Ancient Egyptian Date/Period: In use from the 19th Dynasty until Ptolemaic times, c.1295 - 100 BC. Place of Origin: Tuna el-Gebel. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive. Location: 34B.

A detail of a relief showing Nefertiti worshipping the Aten

A detail of a relief showing Nefertiti worshipping the Aten. One of Aten's rays ends in a human hand that offers the queen the ankh symbol of life in return. Country of Origin: Egypt. Culture: Ancient Egyptian. Date/Period: 18th dynasty c.1352-1336 BC. Place of Origin: Amarna period. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive/ Brooklyn Museum, New York . Location: 72.

A sarcophagus lid portrays an adolescent

A sarcophagus lid portrays an adolescent lying on his right side on a funeral sofa and resting his head upon his left hand. The right hand stretches towards something placed in the left side. The forearm is missing. Only the right hand's fingers are visible.
The figure wears a chiton, or knee-length garment, and a himation, a rectangular cloth draped over the left shoulder, around both legs in circular folds reflecting the feet's movement underneath.
This youngster's physique is characterized by its elegance and plumpness. The facial features are carefully covered and portrayed, yet the head is now smashed on the right side. The portrayal reflects an angelic youth


Artisans de l’Égypte ancienne (catalogue d’exposition. Morlanwelz, Musée royal de Mariemont, 27 mars - 21 juin 1981), n° 114, p. 105-106; Cl. DERRIKS, «Un portrait de momie au musée royal de Mariemont», in Revue des archéologues et des historiens d’art de Louvain, XV, 1982, p. 250-257; R. H. MARIJNISSEN, Paintings. Genuine, fraud, fake. Modern methods of examining paintings, Bruxelles, 1985, fig. p. 47; B. BORG, Mumienporträts. Chronologie und kultureller Kontext, Mayence, 1996 (DAI), p. 16, 66, 213, n° 13; K. PARLASCA, «Mummy portraits: old and new problems», in M. BIERBRIER (éd.), Portraits and masks: burial customs in roman Egypt, Londres, 1997, pl. 47, fig. 1; B. BORG, Der zierkischste Anblick der Welt… Ägyptische Porträtmumien, Mayence, 1998, p. 106, n. 1; K. PARLASCA et H. SEEMANN (dir.), Augenblicke. Mumienporträts und ägyptische Grabkunst aus römischer Zeit (catalogue d’exposition. Francfort, Schirn Kunsthalle, 30 janvier - 11 avril 1999), n° 146, p. 238; K. PARLASCA, «Eine neue Monographie über Mumienbildnisse», c.r. de B. BORG, Mumienporträts. Chronologie und kultureller Kontext, Mayence, 1996, in CdE, LXXV, 2000, p. 179, 182, 186. 8, fig. 8 p. 180; Cl. DERRIKS et L. DELVAUX (éds.), Antiquités égyptiennes au Musée royal de Mariemont, Morlanwelz, 2009, p. 373-375.

Detail of relief from the tomb of Meryre

Detail of relief from the tomb of Meryre. The temple musicians are depicted with deformed eyes, a possible indication of blindness. Some have their mouths open as if singing, others may be humming. Country of Origin: Egypt. Culture: Ancient Egyptian. Date/Period: 18th dynasty c.1352-1336 BC. Place of Origin: Tomb of Meryre, Amarna period. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive/ . Location: 72.

A fragment of a relief. Women mourners

A fragment of a relief. Women mourners. Country of Origin: Egypt. Culture: Ancient Egyptian. Date/Period: 18th dynasty c.1352-1336 BC. Place of Origin: Amarna period. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive/ Schimmel Collection, New York . Location: 72.

Drawing of a limestone

Drawing of a limestone stele depicting the pharaoh (the man with raised arms) Sekhemre-wahkhaw (Rahotep), offering to Osiris for two deceased, an officer and a priest (behind the pharaoh). The stela is dated to Year 1 of Rahotep, early 17th dynasty, Second intermediate period. British Museum 283 (registr. no. 833).

These two wooden shrines

These two wooden shrines are varnished with black resin and contain blue faience cups. These cups are filled respectively with natron, a hydrous native sodium carbonate that was used in embalming, and with resin.
They were placed in the northwestern corner of the Burial Chamber of King Tutankhamun. The shrines are attached to each other by two stone feathers symbolizing the feathers of justice of the goddess Maat. The shrines, which belong to the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, are considered to be symbols of the Two Lands, Upper and Lower Egypt.

Object of Sennedjem with Unknown Purpose

Object of Sennedjem with Unknown Purpose
JE 27247
The semicircular object, found among the funerary equipment of Sennedjem, was apparently part of a larger object. The function and purpose of this object are still unknown.
Along its edge, the object bears a single vertical band of accurately cut hieroglyphs that carry the owner's name and title and the remains of a line that reads "Osiris, the Servant in the Place of Truth, Sennedjem, the Justified."
The Place of Truth refers to Deir el-Medina. All the hieroglyphic signs are written from right to left and painted blue.
"Osiris, the Servant in the Place of Truth, Sennedjem, the Justified."

Fayun portrait

This female portrait is stylistically very close to the Byzantine iconographic tradition, although the lack of characterizing detail means it might be dated anywhere between the second half of the second century AD and the start of the fourth century AD.
It is defined by delicate brushstrokes of strong contrasting colors, as the tempera technique used is unable to give the three dimensional effects achieved with encaustic painting.
Tempera is a painting medium in which pigm...ent is mixed with water-soluble glutinous materials such as egg yolk. The result is that the woman seems flat; her eyes are dull and inexpressive; and her personality is hardly revealed by her long lower lashes and thick dark eyebrows.
The proportions of her features are poorly handled and her nose is too long for the oval of her face; in addition, the slight twist of the neck is exaggerated by the thick wrinkles of her skin.

miércoles, 11 de noviembre de 2015

Detail of the statue of Ebih-Il,

Detail of the statue of Ebih-Il, intendant, Early Dynastic.
gypsum, lapis lazuli and Shell.
Height: 52.5 cm (20.7 in). Width: 20.6 cm (8.1 in). Depth: 30 cm (11.8 in).
from the temple of Ishtar at Mari
Excavated by André Parrot, 1934-1935

Osorkon I Louvre

Osorkon I

martes, 10 de noviembre de 2015

Reina Ahmés Nefertary, gran esposa real del faraón Amosis I.louvre.fr N 470

Reina Ahmés Nefertary, gran esposa real del faraón Amosis I.louvre.fr N 470

Statue of Payeftjauemawyneith in the Louvre

Statue of Payeftjauemawyneith in the Louvre

Payeftjauemawyneith was an Ancient Egyptian high official who lived in the Late Period. He served under the kings Apries and Amasis. He is known from several monuments providing evidence for his importance. There is a statue originally coming from Heliopolis as the inscription on the statue indicates. The statue is today in the British Museum.[1] There is a further statue, now in the Louvre (A93), there is an offering table found at Memphis and a third statue also discovered at Memphis. A fourth statue was excavatedat Buto. Payeftjauemawyneith held several important titles, including high steward and overseer of the double treasury. He also held the title of a physician.

His mother was a woman called Nanesbastet. His father was an official called Sasobek with several titles including leader of the palace, Priest of Horis from Pe and Priest of Amun from the northern Thebes.

1.Jump up ^ Hussein Bassir: The self-presentation of Payeftjauemawyneith on naophorous statue BM EA86, in: Elizabeth Frood and Angela McDonald (editors): Decorum and experience essays in ancient culture for John Baines, Oxford 2013, ISBN 9780900416927, p. 6-13

Fragment de la décoration d'une tombe

Fragment de la décoration d'une tombe : femme à une cérémonie. Règne de Thoutmosis IV ou Aménophis III. (Détail).
Sully ; 1er étage ; Antiquités égyptiennes ; Salle 24


Grand chapiteau de colonne en granite rose décoré d'une tête de la déesse Hathor,

Grand chapiteau de colonne en granite rose décoré d'une tête de la déesse Hathor, règne d'Osorkon II (-874 / -850), ruines du temple de Bastet à Bubastis, poids 7,3 t. - Chapiteau hathorique provenant du grand hall jubilaire d'Osorkon II à Bubastis - XXIIe dynastie - Musée du Louvre, salle 12, n°Inv E10590


The ruins of Tanis
The Royal Tombs of Tanis


La première étude scientifique de Tanis fut conduite en 1798 lors de l’expédition de Bonaparte en Egypte. Le plan de la Description de l’Egypte dressé par Jacotin éclaire l’ensemble des recherches archéologiques durant le XIXe siècle. Dans les cinquante années qui suivirent, le site fut surtout livré aux antiquaires dont le plus actif demeura J. J. Rifaud en 1825.

Peu après la création du Service des Antiquités, A. Mariette fit pratiquer sur le site à partir de 1860 des fouilles massives, concentrées principalement dans le temple d’Amon. Il mit ainsi au jour une impressionnante collection de statues que l’aspect actuel des lieux ne permet plus vraiment d’évoquer. En 1884, une longue campagne de l’Egypt Exploration Society permit à W.M.F. Petrie d’étudier de nombreux aspects de la ville gréco-romaine.

P. Montet conduisit de 1929 à 1951 des campagnes annuelles, seulement interrompues par la guerre entre 1941 et 1944. Il concentra son activité dans la zone nord, exploitant intensément le temple d’Amon et découvrant les temples de Mout, de l’Est, de Khonsou, ainsi que le Lac Sacré du temenos d’Amon. La partie la plus spectaculaire de son œuvre demeure néanmoins la mise au jour des tombes royales des XXIe et XXIIe dynasties, dont celle intacte de Psousennès Ier.

De 1965 à 1985, J. Yoyotte concentra son activité sur la zone nord du site et s’appliqua à dresser un bilan des activités de ses prédécesseurs ainsi qu’à organiser les archives de P. Montet. Il s’efforça de reprendre l’analyse du temple de Khonsou et de la rive ouest du Lac Sacré.

De 1985 à 2013, sous la direction de Philippe Brissaud, la Mission Française des Fouilles de Tanis a progressivement repris tous les secteurs ouverts par P. Montet et élargi son enquête à l’ensemble du territoire archéologique constitué par le tell. Elle a, en outre, conduit un vaste programme patrimonial de protection et de mise en valeur des vestiges archéologiques.

La Société Française des Fouilles de Tanis (SFFT) a contribué au financement de la Mission de 1988 à 2013. Au cours des dernières années, la SFFT a reçu le soutien financier de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, grâce à l'attribution du Prix Burkhart d'Archéologie à Ph. Brissaud en 2009, de l'agence Clio, grâce à l'attribution de son Prix Spécial du Jury à Ph. Brissaud en 2010, et de la fondation Veolia Environnement, qui a financé l'achat de matériel topographique de qualité pour la SFFT en 2011.



Vue du Masque en or de Psousennès Ier, disposé sur la table de la salle à manger de la mission


Head of a cobra,

Head of a cobra, Dynasty 12–13 (ca. 1981–1640 b.c.)
Egyptian; Lisht North
Rogers Fund, 1909 (09.180.2455)

The cobra, a common inhabitant of the Nile River's floodplain, has a deadly bite. Wearing an amulet in the form of a cobra's head would have been considered an effective way to prevent an attack, an event feared by both the living and the dead. Amulets like this one were made for use in the afterlife.

Met Museum


martes, 3 de noviembre de 2015



This is almost destroyed today and cannot be seen in the photo opposite. It included a boat, which seemed to float in the air, with at least seven rowers and squatting passengers. It represents, in the usual manner, the barges of transportation and their passengers
Two men, clothed in a short loincloth, carry a basket with the help of a wooden pole which rests on their shoulders. The basket is skilfully represented, with a design consisting of fine branches (in red) bound by plant ties (in green). The basket is filled, as far as possible, with stems of cereals. Below, on the right of the rear porter, can assumed to be the remains of an undergrowth of papyrus.


Amenemopet tomb

Here is the most interesting representation and the best preserved of the chamber. The deceased and his family's members are in front of the Hathor cow, which leaves of the mountain of the west. More precisely, it represents Hathor-Meresger, as the text specifies. Meresger, who appears most often as a snake, is the manifestation of the Theban Summit, the head of the necropolis and is more especially revered by the craftsmen of the village of Deir el-Medineh, those who produced the royal and princely tombs. It is maybe necessary to see here an indication connecting Amenemopet to the latter, because it is rarely mentioned in the tombs of the officials.
TT177 Amenemopet

lunes, 2 de noviembre de 2015

Pyramide sud de Mazghouna

Pyramide sud de Mazghouna
La pyramide sud de Mazghouna est attribuée à Amenemhat IV. Découverte et explorée au début du XXe siècle par l'égyptologue Ernest Mackay, elle devait avoir une base de 52,50 mètres de côté mais est restée inachevée. Le site est réduit à une tranchée creusée dans le sol rocheux et aux ruines d'un mur d'enceinte

Tell Dafana

Tell Dafana Reconsidered: The Archaeology of an Egyptian Frontier Town
A comprehensive re-evaluation of the objects discovered in the 1886 excavation at Tell Dafana.
This book looks into the findings that were discovered in excavations for the Egyptian Exploration Fund in 1866. It considers the relationship between Egypt and Archaic Greece from the seventh century BC down to the to the fifth, through a re-assessment of the site of ancient Daphnae (now known as Tell Dafana) in the Nile Delta of Egypt.

Excavations at Tell El-Balamun 1999-2001 P

Excavations at Tell El-Balamun 1999-2001 Paperback – Dec 1 2003
by A. J. Spencer
This is the third in a series of final reports on the British Museum's excavations at Tell el-Balamun in the Nile Delta of Egypt. The exploration of the sacred area of the ancient city, continued from earlier seasons, has been concentrated since 1999 on the Ramesside enclosure wall of the temple of Amun. The surviving portions of this enclosure, the earliest temple architecture so far discovered at the site, are described in full. The volume also includes a full report on additional tombs in the elite cemetery of the Twenty-second Dynasty, discovered close to the front of the temple. The burials in these tombs were those of persons of high status, distinguished both by the location of their tombs and by their use of falcon-mask coffins, a rare feature which links them with the royal family of the Twenty-second Dynasty


This plaque is carved in intaglio to receive wax inlay of red and dark green. Originally squared for inlay on a box or piece of furniture, it is broken at the top and left sides, and chipped at the lower right corner
Walters Art Museum

domingo, 1 de noviembre de 2015

Model Boat

Model Boat


© Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford

 Date: c. 2125-1975 BC

Accession Number

AN1896-1908 E.2302


Tunic with scooped neck and fringed lower border

From a tomb at Thebes, Egypt
18th Dynasty, around 1350 BC

Tunic with scooped neck and fringed lower border

It is likely that a much wider range of clothing existed than was shown in the art of ancient Egypt. The few complete garments that have been found show techniques such as smocking and fringing which are seldom shown in representations. Coloured trims, borders and motifs were often used, but are also rarely shown. It is also rare for people to be depicted in anything more than the flimsiest of garments. It is likely that undergarments, such as tunics, were worn in the winter months, when the weather could be cold, especially at night.

Many types of clothing for both men and women are represented in tomb and temple scenes, as well as on statues. The styles worn by deities changed little, as they themselves were eternal. The same is true of the poorer members of society, whose simple clothes were made to be easy to work in. Workmen shown in scenes, and models of workmen, mostly wear loincloths. These people are easy to distinguish from the family of the tomb owner, whose clothes are more elaborate and often accompanied with jewellery

British Museum

Painted wooden model of a boat

Painted wooden model of a boat
From Meir, Middle Egypt
12th Dynasty, around 1900 BC
Boats were one of the types of models placed in ancient Egyptian tombs. The Egyptians saw the blue sky as a celestial river, on which the sun-god Re travelled every day in his own boat. One of the aspirations of an Egyptian king was to travel with the god across the sky in the Afterlife. To help achieve this, full-size boats were buried outside the pyramids of some of the kings of the Old Kingdom (about 2160-2040 BC), including those at Giza. Later it was possible for ordinary people to join the sun-god, using a spell in the Book of the Dead. In another spell, the deceased must name all the elements of the boat before he can cross the celestial river to the Afterlife.
Boats were the main means of transport in ancient Egypt, both for travelling up and down the country, and for crossing the River Nile. The prevailing wind, blowing from the north, helped sailboats travel upstream, towards Upper Egypt and Nubia. Meanwhile, the current of the Nile, flowing northward, aided movement towards the Mediterranean Sea. During the Middle Kingdom (about 2040-1750 BC), two models of passenger boats - one fully rigged, and the other with no mast and rowers in position - were placed in tombs. This is a rigged example. The owner crouches at the front of the boat, while the pilot stands at the prow directing the crew adjusting the sail.
British Museum

Faience dish decorated with a scene of the River Nile

Faience dish decorated with a scene of the River Nile
Egyptian, 1400-1200 BC
From Tomb 66, Enkomi, Cyprus

This attractive dish of pale blue faience shows a man wearing an Egyptian kilt and punting a papyrus boat along a river. A cow or bull sits under a canopy, and below the boat swims a large fish.

Papyrus skiffs, made of bundles of reeds lashed together, were the simplest form of boat in ancient Egypt. They were used for hunting and fishing, and for short journeys across or along the Nile. The animal being carried in the boat may simply be being transported from one place to another, or is perhaps destined as a sacrifice as part of a funerary feast.

The Enkomi tombs contained a rich mixture of local and imported products. They illustrate the wealth of the site in the Late Bronze Age, and the key position occupied by Cyprus in cultural exchanges at this time.

British Museum